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马克思主义社会学:打通实证与理解的藩篱

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英文标题:

Marxism Sociology: Breaking the Barrier Between Positivism and Interpretation

摘要: 本文着眼于社会历史的性质这一具有本体论意义的问题以及与此紧密相关的认识论和方法论。文章指出,作为社会学历史上之对垒双方的实证主义社会学和理解社会学分别堕入了历史决定论和非理性主义的不可知论陷阱;但却又在一个问题上殊途同归,那就是把价值判断、道德评价驱逐出了社会学的合法领地。马克思主义肯定社会发展进程中的必然性,但这种必然性是指对于某一事物的出现和存在必须具备的条件,而不是历史发展之所有其他的可能性均已被排除。因此它与自由意志并非不相容,从而既避免了非理性主义的不可知论,也避免了历史决定论;与此同时,马克思主义对“人类解放”的价值承诺,又使其绕开了相对主义的泥潭。这些特征从经验性和规范性两个层面形塑了马克思主义社会学的基本性格和精神,即科学与自由,也使其与所谓“社会学马克思主义”区别开来。
英文摘要: Positivistic sociology holds that the operation of human society is subject to the same constant law as the natural law, thus falling into the trap of “historical determinism”. The understanding sociology rejects the concept of positivistic sociology, which pays attention to the role of human will and motivation in the social and historical field, but falls into the trap of the agnosticism of irrationality. Unfortunately, positivistic sociology and understanding sociology make the same mistake in expelling value judgment and moral evaluation from the legitimate domain of sociology. The historical idea of Marxism confirms the inevitability in the course of social development, which means the necessary conditions for the emergence and existence of events must be met, otherwise this kind of things cannot appear or continue to exist. In other words, not all other possibilities of historical development have been ruled out in the view of the historical idea of Marxism. This inevitability is not incompatible with free will, so as to avoid the agnosticism of irrationality and historical determinism. At the same time, Marxism’s commitment to liberty—“human emancipation”—helped it bypass the quagmire of relativism. These characteristics shaped the basic characters of Marxist sociology from two aspects of experience and normativity,and laid the foundation of the basic spirit of Marxism sociology, namely scientificity and liberty, which distinguished it from the so-called “sociological Marxism”.
作者:

王小章

作者单位: 杭州师范大学政治与社会学院
期刊: 社会学研究
年.期:页码 2018.5:23-39
中图分类号:
文章编号:
关键词: 马克思主义社会学;实证主义社会学;理解社会学;必然性;积极的规范性理论
英文关键词:
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