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家庭背景、体制转型与中国农村精英的代际传承(1978-1996)

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英文标题:

Family OriginsInstitutional Transformations and Elite Reproduction in Rural China1978-1996

摘要:

使用一个1996年收集的全国抽样数据,并结合事件史分析方法(离散时间风险模型),本文探讨了1978年中国农村经济体制改革后,到底是哪些农民能够抓住机会实现经济上的成功并成为农村中的精英阶层。本研究具体检验了中国农村居民的精英职业地位获得是如何受到他们改革前或解放前的家庭背景影响的。数据分析结果表明:第一,“旧式精英”解放前的政治或经济精英)和“新式精英”(解放后再分配经济时期的政治或经济精英)家庭背景的农民,改革后进入非农职业的机率都比较高。第二,在不同历史阶段,精英职业获得模式是不同的。低风险性是导致改革早期新、旧精英的后代的选择趋同的主要原因,反映了他们在对社会经济发展走向无法清晰把握时的一种选择理性,而改革后期他们非农化道路的分野则充分体现了个体的社会行动是如何受其家庭背景(或精英文化因素)影响的。基于这些发现,作者提出“精英文化的代际传承”观点,指出除了当前学界讨论较多的权力和人力资本因素之外,文化因素也是转型期中国农村社会分层的重要作用机制。

英文摘要:

Using data from a nationally representative survey conducted in 1996this paper explores determinants of occupational attainments in rural China since the late 1970s. Specificallythe paper examines how status attainment is affected by different types of family origins. The results show that people with old-elite family origin (political or economic elite families in rural China during the pre-liberated era) or newelite family origin (political or economic elite families in rural China during the redistributive period between 1949 and 1978) had been more likely to enter elite occupations after the economic reform. Moreoveralthough both old and new elite families had advantagesthey differed in strategies. People in new-elite families tended to enter wage labor or rural cadre occupations during the whole period covered (1978 1996). For those in old-elite familiestheir choices varied with time: during the earlier stage of reform (1978 1986)they chose to enter wage labor occupations; while during the later stage (1987 1996)they chose to enter rural entrepreneur or self-employed occupations. To explain thisthe paper adopts the cultural reproduction theory proposed by Bourdieuarguing that elite culture transmitted across generations facilitates economic success during the market transition in rural China.

作者:

 吴愈晓

作者单位: 山东大学哲学与社会发展学院
期刊: 社会学研究
年.期:页码 2010.2:125-150
中图分类号: K27
文章编号:
关键词: 体制转型; 精英家庭背景; 职业流动; 中国农村
英文关键词:
项目基金:

山东大学“985”工程第二期引进人才科研启动经费的资助

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