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把头包工制:近代中国工业化中的雇佣和生产方式

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英文标题:

Gangmaster Contract System: Employment and production operation in modern China’s industrialization

摘要:

本文着重从组织形成的历史过程与维系的社会基础来分析我国近代工业化中把头包工制这种重要的劳工雇佣及生产作业组织。基于近代工业史、企业史、工运史的相关历史资料及研究成果,本文进一步分析了这种方式的历史渊源、层级结构与改革过程。本研究认为,这种方式最先在洋务派兴办的厂矿企业中出现,后又扩展到近代其他类型的重工业厂矿企业中;这种方式固然受到西方包工制的影响,但其中把头的组织实则来源于湘军组织,二者内在共通之处是带领者和被带领者之间结成的依附庇护关系,而这种关系很大程度上又根源于秘密社会;这种方式虽不符合西方科学理性的生产管理标准,且是近代工人运动努力废除的目标,但在近代却长期存续并非常有效。深入研究这种具有传统社会历史基础的组织,有助于我们理解近代中国工业化进程中生产劳动方式演变的轨迹,及其与现代机械化生产和科学管理方式的交汇与碰撞。

英文摘要:

This paper presents the history of organization formation and its social foundation to analyze the gangmaster contract system. It was an important employment and production operation in modern China’s industrialization. This paper further discusses the historical origin, hierarchical structure and reform process of the gangmaster contract system, based on data and research of the industrial history, the history of enterprises and worker movements. The main conclusions are:(1)This system originated from the industrial enterprises established by the westernizationists and later extended to other types of heavy industry enterprises.(2)Besides the influence of western contract system, this system was rooted in the Xiang Army, characterized by personal attachment of the secret society.(3)Different from the western, scientific and rational productive management, and despite being the target of the worker movements, the gangmaster contract system endured and was effective in modern China’s industrialization. The study contributes to our understanding of the evolution of modern China’s employment and production operation, as well as its collision and blending with the western scientific management and production.

作者:

马学军

作者单位: 中国政法大学政治与公共管理学院
期刊: 社会学研究
年.期:页码 2016.2:102-122
中图分类号:
文章编号:
关键词: 把头包工制;劳工雇佣;生产作业;科学管理;依附庇护;
英文关键词:
项目基金:

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