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集体行动、搭便车理论与形式社会学方法

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英文标题:

Collective Action , Free-rider Problem , and the Application of Formal Models in Social Sciences

摘要: 本文从奥尔森的搭便车理论出发,总结了形式模型在集体行动和社会运动研究中的发展及应用前景,并在此基础上提出如下观点1.经验事实与其他理论不能是形式模型的评判基础,同样,形式模型也不能用来解释或预测经验现象特别是复杂的经验现象;2.评判一个形式模型的基础只能是模型的前提假设与逻辑结构,而一个形式模型重要与否,则在于该模型是否揭示了社会中普遍存在的问题,以及该模型的出发点和假设是否抓住了人类社会活动结构的关键性本质。奥尔森的搭便车理论之所以重要,是因为它抓住了人类活动的核心——对公共物品的普遍追求,以及决定这一追求成功与否的一个最为重要的变量——群体规模。成功的形式模型一般都是一些对于历史上长期流传下来的成语或民间智慧的数学或逻辑总结,而绝大多数已发表的形式模型因不得此要领而流于数学游戏。
英文摘要:

Staring with Olson' s theory of free-rider problem, this article discusses the application of formal models in the studies of collective action, social movements and social sciences in general.The article arguesthat :1)the quality of a formal theory should not be judged by whether it fits with empirical data or with other formal and empirical theories.It is also misleading to explain or predict empirical phenomenon by the results derived from a formal model .2)The quality and importance of a formal theory should be judged by the importance of the problems that the model intends to address and the robustness of the model' s assumptions.Olson' s free-rider problem isimportant because it captures the central activity of human society the pursuing of public goods, and one of the most important variables that determine whether or not a public good will actually be delivered population size.Successful formal models always tend to be formal representations of the wisdom of human society in the forms of proverbs or folk wisdom. However, most scholarsin social sciences do not possess this kind of methodological taste. Therefore, the formal models that they have constructed are often no more than mathematical games.

作者:

赵鼎新;

作者单位: 美国芝加哥大学社会学系;
期刊: 社会学研究
年.期:页码 2006.1:1-21
中图分类号:
文章编号:
关键词: 集体行动; 搭便车理论; 形式方法; 公共物品; 博弈论;
英文关键词:
项目基金:

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