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共同体与道德——论马克思道德学说对德国历史主义传统的超越

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英文标题: Community and Morality: On How Marx’s Moral Theory Transcends German Historicism
摘要: 本文从滕尼斯对马克思的误读出发,在德国历史主义取向的共同体传统视域中考察了共产主义的道德意涵。总体来看,马克思的共产主义学说在起点上同历史主义路向的德国共同体传统具有很强的亲和性,也是为了维护人的整全个性,但与后者的进路判然有别,并最终在道德问题上超越了后者。德国共同体传统批判启蒙理性在政治上和经济上的制度设计,试图通过文化途径重建共同体精神。他们试图牺牲适度的政治经济“平等”来为道德意义上带有“等级性”的“良知自由”开辟空间,从而保全人的整全个性。这种文化取向没能给政治经济结构以合理的位置,始终无法跳出“在用社会力量塑造的社会中恢复共同体”的循环怪圈。马克思通过政治经济学批判指出这个怪圈的症结所在,试图从根本上推翻导致这个怪圈的政治经济结构,从而达到彻底解放人的个性的目的。马克思和恩格斯认为,必须在真正的政治经济平等的基础上,为道德自由开辟新的空间,这样既能消除人的等级差别,又能维护人的整全个性,从而超越了德国共同体传统,把共同体提升到了一个新的境界。
英文摘要: Starting from the misunderstanding of Marx by T?nnies, this essay examines the moral meaning of communism from the perspective of community theories based on German historicism. The starting point of Marx’s communist doctrine has a very strong affinity with the tradition of German community theories—to protect the integrity of personality—but it is quite different from the latter’s approach. Marx’s solution transcends the latter in terms of moral problems. German community theorists criticize the political and economic institutional design of the Enlightenment rationalism and try to rebuild the community spirit through cultural approaches. They want to sacrifice certain “equality” at the level of political economy to open up space for the “conscientious freedom” with a kind of moral “hierarchy”, in order to preserve the integrity of the personality. This culturally oriented humanitarianism does not give a proper place for the political and economic structure, thus fails to free itself from the cycle of “restoring the community in a society shaped by social forces.” Marx attempts to fundamentally overthrow the political and economic structure that has led to this cycle. The goal is to completely liberate one’s personality. Marx and Engels hold that it is necessary to open up a new space for moral freedom on the basis of true political and economic equality in order to eliminate the hierarchical differences among human beings and to safeguard the integrity of personality of the human beings, thus transcend German community theories and elevate community to a new level.
作者:

李荣山

作者单位: 上海大学社会学院
期刊: 社会学研究
年.期:页码 2018.2:37-61
中图分类号:
文章编号:
关键词: 共产主义;共同体;异化;道德
英文关键词:
项目基金: 本文是国家社科基金青年项目“韦伯比较历史社会学的方法论基础研究”(批准号:16CSH005)和国家社科基金重大项目“当代中国转型社会学理论范式创新研究”(批准号:17ZDA112)的阶段性成果。

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