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从被管理的手到被管理的心——劳动过程视野下的加班研究

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英文标题:

From Managed Hands to Managed Heart:The Study of Overtime Working from the View of Labor Process Theory

摘要: 本文以中国劳动力动态调查(2012年)的数据为基础,从劳动过程理论视角出发,讨论中国城市居民的加班现象。与以往研究的国家、市场和组织环境或个体劳动者的角度不同,本文选择从资本的角度来讨论普遍存在的加班现象,探究资本如何能够通过加班进一步侵占劳动者的剩余价值。本文的基本假设是:面对不同的劳动方式,资本采用不同的控制方式。研究发现,对于简单劳动者,资本通过劳动过程的去技能化实现对工人剩余价值的占有;对于复杂劳动者,资本的微观权力运作过程深入到个体劳动者的思想里。通过管理劳动者的“心”,资本不仅能够以更少的抵抗来使劳动者加班,还能以更低的成本甚至是无任何薪酬的方式来使劳动者加班。
英文摘要: Based on the data of China’s labor force survey (2012),this paper discusses the overtime working phenomenon of urban and rural residents in China from the perspective of labor process theory. From the perspective of capital, namely,how can the capital further encroach upon the surplus value of the workers through overtime working when it is prohibited by the State and actively opposed to by the workers? The basic assumption of this paper is that in the face of different labor styles,capital adopts different control methods. In traditional manufacturing and low-end services industry,using methods of scientific management,the capital manages the workers’ “hands” through the production process and the standardization,to de-skill the worker and to share the surplus value of workers finally. As for the manager,professional and technical personnel as representatives of the high-end professional status groups,the capital has another set of logic. To achieve self-realization and self-investment based on the theory of human capital,to promote the self-management of workers in the high-end service industry,the theory of human capital has become a powerful carrier of capital control,and the personal value theory also promotes individual actors’ self-discipline and self-management behavior. By managing the “heart” of workers, capital can not only make workers work overtime with less resistance,but also work overtime at lower costs,or even without pay.
作者:

庄家炽

作者单位: 中央财经大学社会与心理学院
期刊: 社会学研究
年.期:页码 2018.3:74-91
中图分类号:
文章编号:
关键词: 劳动过程;加班;工人主体性
英文关键词:
项目基金:

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