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人造社会与伦理社会——滕尼斯对近代自然法学说的解读及其社会理论的奠基

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英文标题:

The Artificial Society and Ethical Society:Ferdinand T?nnies’ Interpretation of the Modern Natural Law Theory and the Foundation of His Social Theory

摘要:

面对19世纪末德意志帝国内个人主义和专制主义交织的困境,滕尼斯以霍布斯代表的近代理性主义自然法学说为其社会学的研究起点,试图把握现代人性面貌和国家的权利基础,进而探寻重塑民族伦理生活的道路。滕尼斯用“社会性”化解了霍布斯那里的自然状态和政治状态间的理论张力,并创造性地用古日耳曼的“原始集会”来构建社会的历史原型。通过对霍布斯生平与学说的细致解读,滕尼斯敏锐地揭示了现代人性以及生活方式的根本难题,即潜藏在文明之下的人与人互为敌人的自然状态。由此出发,他不仅从霍布斯的自然法学说内部探寻规范人心的可能性,且基于对自然法的反思,尝试在德国的思想和历史遗产中寻求更合乎德意志民族之传统、更本真的人性规范。

英文摘要:

Facing the dilemma of individualism and despotism in the German Empire at the end of the 19th century,Ferdinand T?nnie developed his sociological studies on the basis of Thomas Hobbes’ natural law theory. He tried to understand the modern human nature and the basis of the modern state,before seeking to rebuild the ethical life of the German nation. T?nnie dissolved the conflict between the natural state and the political state in Hobbes’ theory by the concept of the social state and creatively constructed the Germanic “original assembly” as the historical archetype of Society. Based on an interpretation of Hobbes’ life and doctrine,T?nnie revealed the fundamental problem of the modern human nature and mode of life,i.e., the natural state hidden in the civilization. Thus,T?nnie not only found in Hobbes’ theory of natural law the possibility to normalize the human nature,but also explored the norm that is more authentic to the tradition of the German nation.

作者:

张巍卓

作者单位: 北京大学社会学系
期刊: 社会学研究
年.期:页码 2017.4:119-142
中图分类号:
文章编号:
关键词: 滕尼斯;原始集会;自然状态;抉择意志;本质意志
英文关键词:
项目基金:

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