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“说话”的可能性——对土改“诉苦”的再反思

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英文标题:

The Possibility to Voice : A reflection on the complaining campaigns against landlords during the Land Reform

摘要:

土地改革中农民的诉苦是近年来引起反思的问题,反思的焦点集中在农民能否在诉苦中自主而真实地进行表达。本文指出,整体的生活贫困及阶级化的社会苦难认知模式的确是农民响应诉苦的基础,但农民却是基于自身的利益、立场与价值、情感认定来理解与迎合诉苦的。因此,诉苦中农民的说话并非完全是阶级化社会苦难模版的再现,而是对这个模版的接受、利用、改造、规避、沉默甚至抵制的多重选择。本文着重强调农民作为说话主体对于阶级化诉苦话语空间的选择性适应,认为在这种选择性适应中,农民有可能借诉苦来舒张自身的利益与情感价值诉求,同时又以各种策略性的应对来回应因说话违背阶级化诉苦模版而遭到的话语空间压缩,从而使政治规训虽显效一时,却最终失灵,诉苦也呈现出与预期相反的效用递减趋势,而它所彰显的,实际上是阶级化社会解释模式所遭遇的最初冲击。

英文摘要:

Suku, or complaining campaigns against landlords during the land reform, is a phenomenon which has evoked a great deal of reflections in recent years. These reflections mainly concentrate on whether peasants could express themselves truly and autonomously. This paper points out that peasants' absolutely low standards of living and their cognition of suffering from the perspective of class were indeed the basis of peasants' response to suku,   however, their understanding of suku and the corresponding actions taken during the campaign were based on their own benefits, values, and emotions. Thus, peasants' voice in suku was not always the reproduction of the narrative mode of class suffering, but multiple choices including acceptance, imposition, alteration, avoidance, reticence and even resistance. This paper emphasizes the selective adaption of peasants as leading participants to the limited freedom of speech during suku.  The authors argue that with this selective adaption, suku was adopted by peasants to maintain their own interests and emotional needs, while at the same time, strategic answers were given to cope with the prohibition of voice violating the narrative mode of class suffering. Therefore, CCP’s political discipline did show great effect in short term, but inevitably failed at last. Furthermore, on the contrary to expectation, the utility of suku also started to diminish over time.

作者: 吴毅 陈颀
作者单位: 华中科技大学社会学系暨中国乡村治理研究中心
期刊: 社会学研究
年.期:页码 2012.6:146-171
中图分类号: D651.1
文章编号:
关键词: 土地改革 农民 诉苦 说话
英文关键词:
项目基金:

2011年度国家社会科学基金重点项目“社会变迁视角下当代中国农地制度发展与改革研究”(11ASH002);2009年度教育部人文社会科学研究一般项目“社会变迁视角下当代中国农村土地制度研究”(09YJA840007);2010-2011年度华中科技大学自主创新研究基金项目(人文社会科学)“当代中国农地制度的演变与发展研究”(2011WB009)的阶段性成果

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